MANUSMRITI IS VARNA NEUTRAL – 6

varna-vyavastha

MANUSMRITI  IS THE MOST ENLIGHTENED, PERFECT AND THE GREATEST CIVIL CODE EVER KNOWN TO HUMANITY.

In this series only those Sloka-s have been selected for exposition that confront all misgivings / untrue perceptions about the wisdom of Manusmrti  prevailing all around and facilitate accurate interpretation.

Evam Grhasrame Sthitva Vidhivatsnatako Dvijah I

Vane Vasettu Niyato Yathavadvijitendriyah  II VI / 1 II

After learning through Brahmacarya, restraining senses to become self-contained, completing Grhastha Asrama  successfully, Dvija  may now move onto Sannyasa Asrama.

 

Maharsi Manu  announces arrival of third Asrama  in one’s life i.e. Sannyasa   i.e. life of asceticism and renunciation. Like other Asrama-s, this one too, cannot be preponed as particularly mentioned therein. It arrives only after learning has been completed in Guru’s hermitage while observing Tapa  of Brahmacarya, then honouring all obligations and responsibilities in the capacity of a Grhastha  i.e. householder. All these while, he must resolutely remain Jitendriya  with all senses under perfect command of his Buddhi  i.e. faculty of discriminative cognition. In contemporary times too, Sannyasa Asrama  is absolutely imperative though it may be pursued at subtle, spiritual level with the same steadfastness as otherwise. It is impossible to ignore Sannyasa Asrama  lest one lands himself in myriad complexities of life.

Sannyasa Asrama  is destined for all the orders of Dvija  i.e. BrahmanaKsatriya  and Vaisya. Only one order, of Sudra  has been excluded because they opt to serve other three orders of Dvija  as a measure of Tapa  so long as they so desire.

Grhasthastu Yada Pasyedvalipalitmatmanah I

Apatyasyaiva Capatyam Tadaranyam Samasrayet  II VI / 2 II

Grhastha  may proceed to jungles once their skin is detached, hairline turned white and son too, is blessed with his son.

 Opportune time for a Grhastha  to renounce all fetters of the world is when ravages of advancing age have a bearing upon his entire persona particularly on skin and crown. That is the phase when his son is blessed with his own son i.e. third generation enters into the household. With rising household complexities and assertion for more liberty by the next generation, aging householder must renounce to ensure smooth passage of the family into immediate future. Son’s infant son demands and deserves more care and attention than his aging father. Any involvement in domestic affairs whatsoever, shall inevitably lead to friction and attrition in the household.

Veda-s too, have preached the same in their holistic wisdom.

Svadhyaye Nityayuktah Syadyanto Maitrah Samahitah  I

Data Nityamanadata Sarvabhutanukampakah  II VI / 8 II

Must always pursue Svadhyaya, remain self-contained, compassionate for all, philanthropic and decline favours.

Person practising Vanaprastha Asrama  has been mandated by Maharsi Manu to pursue Svadhyaya  i.e study of scriptures, discuss and conduct discourses too, on the same while dwelling in jungles. The Asrama  calls upon to remain self-contained, satisfied with life led past, assiduously pursue universality by being compassionate towards all and thoroughly charitable. Vanaprastha Asrama  does not allow one to accept gifts, benefits of any kind from anyone lest one strays away from the charted path inadvertently.

Rksestayyagrayanam Caiva Caturmasyani Caharet  I

Turayanam Ca Kramaso Daksasyayanameva Ca  II VI / 10 II

Naksatra YajnaCaturmasya YajnaUttarayana YajnaDaksinayana Yajna  and Yajna  with freshly harvested grains must be conducted.

 

Grand Naksatra Yajna  is conducted during transit from one Naksatra  to another. Naksatra-s number 27 viz. AswiniBharaniKrttikaRohiniMrgasirsaArdraPunarvasuPusyaAslesaMaghaPurvaphalguniUttaraphalguniHastaCitraSwatiVisakhaAnuradhaJyesthaMulaPurvasadhaUttarasadhaSravanaDhanisthaSatabhisajaPurvabhadrapadaUttarabhadrapada  and Revati. Dawn of every Naksatra  is welcomed and propitiated with oblations into sacred fire of Yajna  to invoke salutary effects.

Caturnasya Yajna  is conducted every fourth month at the dawn of KartikaPhalguna  and Asadha.

Uttarayana Yajna  is conducted at the advent of sun into northern solstice while Daksinayana Yajna, at the advent of sun into southern solstice.

All these Yajna-s and rituals establish direct relation of the individual with other constituents of the cosmos.

Na Phalakrstamasniyadutsrstamapi Kenacit  I

Na Gramajatanyartoapi Mulani Ca Phalani Ca  II VI / 16 II

He is mandated not to accept anything grown after ploughing even if offered, fruits and vegetables harvested in a village even if famished.

Tapa  to be undertaken during Vanaprastha Asrama  is encumbered with stringent conditions. Such an ascetic is not permitted to accept anything produced in village howsoever fragile, emaciated his state of being may be. Purpose of the restraint is to preserve fundamental spirit of renunciation and sanctity of asceticism.

Aprayatnah Sukharthesu Brahmacari Dharasayah  I

Saranesvamamascaiva Vrksamulaniketanah  II VI / 26 II

Indifferent to comforts, pursues Brahmacarya, sleeps on ground at roots of trees devoid of affinity of any order whatsoever.

 

Those enjoying severity of Vanaprastha Asrama  are innately indifferent to physical comforts so much so that deny themselves basic comfort of bed and sleep under tree. Even a trace of inclination towards physical comfort may eventually burgeon into full-fledged Bhoga  of Visaya  ravaging entire Vanaprastha. Lust and desire are impossible to be satiated through Bhoga  i.e. enjoyment of objects of desire as they grow more with that. They can be satiated only through the arduous pursuit of Tapa  and Sadhana.

Etascanyasca Sevet Diksa Vipro Vane Vasan  I

Vividhascaupanisadiratmasamsiddhaye Srutih  II VI / 29 II

Thus, while dwelling in jungles in pursuit of wisdom, must study Upanisad-s etc. to cognise Atma  from Paramatma  discriminatively.

 

Viveka Khyati  i.e. Discriminative cognition is the most effective means to attain the Ultimate Abode of Param Brahmatma. Pursuit of discriminative wisdom, thereafter Param Brahma  through that, ought to be the vocation Vanaprasthi  i.e. practitioner of Vanaprastha Asrama  obsessed with. Contemplative study of Upanisad-s and other scriptures facilitate attaining the goal of discriminative wisdom.

Vanesu Ca Vihratyaivam Tritiyam Bhagamayusah  I

Caturthamayuso Bhagamtyaktva Sanganparivrajet  II VI / 33 II

Thus, in jungles must wander during fourth phase as an ardent ascetic after completing third one.

Sannyasa Asrama  is the fourth and last one in a human life-span after twelve to twenty-five years of Vanaprastha  in jungles. In this Asrama, he is called upon to become completely ascetic, a detached hermit who wanders constantly in his cherished mission to serve others and live for all. Concluding years of the Asrama  extend ample opportunities to improve and consolidate one’s spiritual merits from the stand point of next re-incarnation if yet unable to attain Moksa.

Adhitya Vidhivadvedanputranscotpadya Dharmatah  I

Istva Ca Saktito Yajnairmano Mokse Nivesayet  II VI / 36 II

After completing Vedic  studies during Brahmacarya Asrama, after raising a son during Grhastha Asrama, after performing Yajna  during Vanaprastha Asrama, strive for Moksa  during Sannyasa.

In this one SutraMaharsi Manu  has summarised entire human life-span sub-divided into four Asrama-s and the most conspicuous mandate to be honoured for each one individually. Sadhana  for Moksa  is the ultimate strive that is undertaken preferably after successfully honouring first three Asrama-s of BrahmacaryaGrhastha  and Vanaprastha. First Asrama  of Brahmacarya  is characterised by assiduous study of Veda-s, second Asrama  of Grhastha  by raising family and successor, third Asrama  of Vanaprastha  by solemnising Yajna-s and other Vedic  rituals while the fourth and last Asrama of Sannyasa, by the severe strive to attain Moksa.

Raising of Putra  i.e. son by a householder during Grhastha Asrama  does not mean strictly male offspring. Maharsi Manu  has called for succession of the householder through the expression of Putra  which may be son or daughter. During Vedic  period, women were as much active and accomplished as men, enjoyed equal status in society as well as all the rights and privileges that were extended to men. Just as Veda-s / Upanisad-s refer to Atma  as Purusa  which literally means “Man” though Atma  has no gender at all, mention of Putra  herein refers to succession alone and not gender of the succession.

Prajapatyam Nirupyestim Sarvavedas Daksinam  I

Atmanyagninsamaropya Brahmanah Pravrajedu Grhat  II VI / 38 II

To attain Param Brahma, a Brahmana  migrates to Sannyasa Asrama  from Grhastha  directly after due diligence of YajnopavitaSikha  and Prana-s.

For the one highly advanced spiritually owing to Sadhana  accomplished in previous lives, migration to Sannyasa Asrama  without going into Grhastha  is acceptable. Being highly advanced in Jnana  and Adhyatma, the erudite one is regarded as Brahmana  who is required to renounce his Yajnopavita  of sacred thread and Sikha  i.e. tuft of hair on head before embracing Sannyasa. In addition to that, the Mumuksu  i.e. Seeker is also mandated to vest five orders of Agni  into PranaApanaVyanaUdana  and Samana  i.e. five orders of Prana-s before being initiated into Sannyasa.

It is explicitly established that four orders of Asrama-s are means to the end of attainment of ultimate glory of one’s supreme existence and not the end themselves. That is an eloquent tribute to the wisdom, farsightedness and inclusivity devoid of discrimination, of the wisdom of Manusmriti  which remains as much relevant today as it had been thousands of years ago. The dynamism of wisdom has prevented Sanatana Dharma  from drifting towards rigidity and fanaticism.

Ek Eva Carennityam Siddhyarthamasahayavan  I

Siddhimekasya Sampasyanna Jahati Na Hiyate  II VI / 42 II

Devoid of refuge, always wanders alone without disowning anyone or being disowned as peregrinations in solitude alone lead to emancipation.

Ultimate emancipation from shackles of Prakrti  is invariably attained in the state of intensely meditative solitude alone, never collectively or in company of anyone whosoever. In active cognition of this reality, Mumuksu  must not seek company of anyone at any moment or be desirous of refuge owing to any compulsion. Once absolutely detached, Mumuksu  does not have to undergo the turmoil of being disowned by anyone or the agony of being compelled to disown someone already attached. It is a state of freedom of mind and intellect to ensure, strive towards absolute and ultimate emancipation continues smoothly, unhindered till the final state of being redeemed into the Absolute One. The spiritual solitude also ensures, mind and intellect of the Mumuksu  remains resolutely vested in the Absolute Reality incessantly, a cardinal and essential condition to attain Absolute Liberty.

Anagnirniketah Syat Gramamannarthamasrayet  I

Upeksakoasankusuko Munirbhavasamahitah  II VI / 43 II

Bereft of all Agni-s, hearth and home, depends on village for grain and clothes, indifferent to evil ones, resolutely meditative in Param Brahma, wanders the Mumuksu.

 

After having renounced all the three orders of Agni-s viz. GarhapatyaAhavaniya  and Daksina, home, surviving on food and clothes donated by villagers, wanders around in service of others while resolutely meditating on Param Brahma, an ardent Mumuksu  religiously avoids company of evil ones. While steadfastly striving for attainment of ultimate emancipation, Mumuksu  must render remaining years of existence purposeful through service unto all others without losing his sight on the ultimate objective of his entire existence.

Abhipujitalabhanstu Jugupsetaiva Sarvasah  I

Abhipujitalabhaisca Yatirmuktoapi Baddhayate  II VI / 58 II

Utter indifference towards gains and alms received with excessive adoration be observed lest the Mumuksu  is fettered again.

During his peregrinations as a Mumuksu, quite possibly he may come across adorers who may serve him extravagantly if not lavishly out of sheer reverence, deep and intense. Maharsi Manu  has warned Mumuksu-s not to allow themselves be involved emotionally or otherwise in these adorations howsoever sacred or genuine that may be. Such adorations may act as strong deterrants from attaining the supreme objective of ultimate emancipation. Such temptations must be completely renounced at subtle level resolutely.

Pranayama Brahmanasya Trayoapi Vidhivatkrtah  I

Vyahrtipranavairyukta Vijneyam Paramam Tapah  II VI / 70 II

Three orders of Pranava  being assiduously pursued by the Brahmana  as highest Tapa.

Herein Brahmana  is the one who pursues Param Brahma  and Pranava  is Omkara, pursued through Pranayama  i.e. by regulating inhalations and exhalations. Sannyasa  is the state of being of Brahamana  who is now an ardent renunciant, wandering in jungles completely immersed in intense meditation on Param BrahmatmaBrahamana  i.e. Sannyasi  is ordained to practise at least three Pranayama  of his liking otherwise BahyaAbhyantara  and Stambhaka  are the three orders of Pranayama  generally followed. Through PranayamaBrahmana  effectively focuses on Pranava  i.e. Omkara, monosyllable divine Sabda  of Param Brahmatma  before being poised to be attained into Him. Intake of Prana  is regulated through the pursuit of Pranayama  that lead to stillness and tranquillity in mind and intellect. As mind is rendered more and more serene and tranquil, intensity of Dharana  and Dhyana  are augmented, more and more proximate is the objective of ultimate emancipation. Thus, Pranayama  has been declared Tapa  of the highest order by Maharsi Manu.

Dahyante Dhmayamananam Dhatunam Hi Yatha Malah  I

Tathendriyanam Dahyante Dosah Pranasya Nigrahat  II VI / 71 II

Because all Samskara-s of Mana  and Indriya-s are dissolved just as all impurities of metal turn into ashes when incinerated in fire.

Metals exist in nature in the form of minerals heaped in impurities and the process of their extraction requires burning away all impurities in intense fire. Similarly on the plane subtle existence, Samskara-s i.e. impressions of Karma-s enacted in past yet unredeemed, are the impurities that cover mind, intellect and senses. Samskara-s as subtle impurities, do not allow Mana  and Buddhi  to contemplate, meditate on Param Brahmatma  in the strive to attain ultimate emacipation. Pranayama  is most effective of all spiritual strives in obliterating subtle impurities of Samakara-s by creating extremely subtle modulations that penetrate Samskara-s, implode them and dissolve. In addition to that, it is the fastest way of dissolving impurities of Samskara-s too.

Anena Kramayogena Parivrajati Yo Dvijah  I

Sa Vidhuyeha Papmanam Param Brahmadhigacchati  II VI / 85 II

Thus, Dvija  who pursues Sannyasa  in the order ordained, is attained to Param Brahma  by bequeathing entire sins here.

By following the order of four Asrama-s i.e. BrahmacaryaGrhasthaVanaprastha  and Sannyasa, a Dvija  is liberated from all fetters of Maya  and poised to attain supreme and ultimate state of existence. However, order of Asrama-s as detailed, is not mandatory in exceptional cases as we have already perused in some of the aforesaid Sloka-s. Pursuit of Sannyasa  renders all Karma-s enacted in past, redeemed and the Sannyasi, consecrated by being bereft of entire spectrum of Samskara-s. With Citta  of the Sannyasi  thus, rendered crystal clear and serene, is liberated and attained into Param Brahma. And purpose of human existence thus, realised.

Brahmacari Grhasthasca Vanaprastho Yatistatha  I

Ete Grhasthaprabhavascatvarah Prthagasramah  II VI / 87 II

BrahmacaryaGrhasthaVanaprastha  and Sannyasa Asrama-s have originated from Grhastha Asrama  alone.

Through this SlokaMaharsi Manu  has established primacy of Grhastha Asrama  and origin of other three Asrama-s. Householder alone is the one who works to generate wealth for the survival and sustenance of entire society.  Those who pursue Grhastha Asrama, nourish and sustain Gurukula-s for Brahmacarya Asrama. Followers of Vanaprastha  and Sannyasa Asrama-s are sustained by householders through Dana  i.e. charity and Bhiksa  i.e. alms.

In absence of Grhastha Asrama, other three Asrama-s are rendered worthless. In absence of Grhastha  i.e. householder, existence of entire society is jeopardised.

All these injunctions and mandates are entirely Varna-neutral.

SAMYAMA IS SUSTAINABILITY

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