MANUSMRITI IS THE MOST ENLIGHTENED, PERFECT AND THE GREATEST CIVIL CODE EVER KNOWN TO HUMANITY.
In this series only those Sloka-s have been selected for exposition that confront all misgivings / untrue perceptions about the wisdom of Manusmrti prevailing all around and facilitate accurate interpretation.
Adrohainaiva Bhutanamalpadrohena Va Punah I
Ya Vrttistam Samasthaya Vipro Jivedanapadi II IV / 2 II
Dvija is ordained to work to earn without harming anyone or harming least otherwise.
As a householder, every Dvija is mandated to work to earn according to his Varna to be able to honour all domestic responsibilities and social obligations. Injunction imposed through the Sutra stipulates for every Dvija not to indulge in any such occupation that may cause harm to the nature or any living being. Thus the occupation must be completely bereft of violence of any kind, direct or indirect. In extreme circumstances wherein such an occupation is not accessible, Dvija must opt for the one involving least possible harm to the nature or violence to living beings. He is also mandated to discard such an occupation and revert to the desired one as soon as adverse circumstances wither away. Amid ordinary circumstances, nature must be respected even while earning one’s livelihood.
Yatramatraprasiddhyartham Svaih Karmabhiragarhitaih I
Aklesena Sarirasya Kurvita Dhanasamcayam II IV / 3 II
Earned through noble occupations, wealth to be retained bare enough to carry on with life and honour obligations without agonising oneself.
While following injunctions with respect to nature of occupation pursued, Dvija is called upon to deport himself like an ascetic while deciding on the amount of wealth retained and saved to meet exigencies and ordinary requirements in future. Dvija must retain wealth at the minimum level so as to be able to honour all justifiable requirements. Any saving or retention of wealth beyond the level of honourable sustenance shall revive and nurture Lobha, a vice that may hinder Dvija’s spiritual advancement. Maharsi Manu has imposed a rider too, to the effect that Dvija must not indulge in Self-torture while retaining wealth for obligations and requirements. Guiding principle is that retention should be sufficient so as to allow Dvija and dependents to survive and work honourably without physically and mentally agonising themselves.
Na Lokavrttam Varteta Vrttihetoh Kathancan I
Ajivhamasatham Suddham Jivedabrahmanajivikam II IV / 4 II
Householder must not violate Dharma yet pursue vocations bereft of impurity, irrationality, untruth and ill-intent.
Under no circumstance howsoever severe, is a householder permitted to violate elements of Dharma. Entire conduct of a householder is ordained to be absolutely pure and righteous, bereft of any action that may resemble absence of Dharma whatsoever. A householder is mandated to pursue a vocation to earn livelihood without violating social norms and standards of truthful, non-violent conduct.
Santosam Paramasthaya Sukharthi Samyato Bhavet I
Santosamulam Hi Sukham Duhkhmulam Viparyayah II IV / 5 II
Seekers of bliss must renounce covetousness with satiation being at the root of bliss otherwise galore of agonies.
Bliss emanates from the sense of satisfaction which in turn, originates from renunciation, transcending covetousness, avarice. No desire can be satisfied by objects of the desire. The fire of lust grows and conflagrates with more objects of desire. Pursuit of asceticism involving renunciation of sensual pleasures and related objects alone paves the way to satisfaction and bliss. Pursuit of sense-pleasure, covetousness etc. lead to augmentation of greed, egoism and anger. Sri Krsna propounded in His exposition of Srimadbhagvadgita that greed, anger, egoism are the gateway to hell. These are the vanities that propel one towards perpetual pursuit of pleasure and acquisition, denial of which at any stage causes outburst of anger, extreme actions followed by steep downfall into miseries and agonies. Continuous pursuit of asceticism and renunciation of desire alone ensure bliss and tranquillity.
Indriyarthesu Sarvesu Na Prasajyet Kamatah I
Atiprasaktim Caitesam Manasa Sannivertayet II IV / 9 II
Never to involve with sense-joys and remain detached from objects thereof.
In continuation of the previous one, householder is ordained to renounce pleasures of organs of perception and remain aloof from respective objects of all senses. By observing renunciation of sense-joys, even a householder can thus, pursue asceticism of the highest order. It is so also because a householder renounces objects of sense-joys even while physically remaining amid these objects, fettered to household Dharma. With such a spiritual conduct, even a householder can comfortably migrate towards the highest abode of emancipation from shackles of Prakrti.
Sarvanparityajedarthansvadhyayasya Virodhinah I
Yathatathadhyapayanstu Sa Hrsya Krtkrtyata II IV / 10 II
Must abhor all that violates Svadhyaya, Dharma while redeeming by imparting knowledge.
Householder must never discontinue Svadhyaya i.e. study and contemplation of scriptures along with pursuit of his Dharma as ordained in Veda-s and Manusmriti. If a householder pursues Svadhyaya and imparts education unto others, he shall be redeemed much earlier. He is ordained to eschew every activity that inhibits him from pursuing Svadhyaya, his Dharma as a householder and the obligation of imparting knowledge unto others. It is revealed in Sruti that pursuit of Svadhyaya leads one to the Aradhyadeva i.e. the deity ordained to be adored and pursued for.
Pakhandino Vikarmasthanbaidalavrtikanchathan I
Haitukanbakavrttinscha Vangamatrenapi Narcayet II IV / 16 II
Charlatans, those who violate Veda-s, deceitful, obstinate, duplicitous and excessively vocal ones, should not be accorded honour even through words.
Charlatans are the ones who do not possess knowledge of Sruti yet deport themselves otherwise. Atheists, cynics, agnostics and sceptics who have no regard for Vedic wisdom or the Karmakanda enshrined therein, are always critical of anything even remotely connected with Vedic wisdom. Deceitful, obstinate, duplicitous, those who speak irrationally and excessively, are the ones who neither conserve their own wisdom nor strive for it’s augmentation. All such ordinary mortals must be religiously avoided lest they harm regressively those who are pursuing the path of Dharma and Svadhyaya. Sutra is a measure of caution administered by Maharsi Manu for all the noble ones.
Saktitoapacamanebhyo Datavyam Grihamedhina I
Samvibhagasca Bhutebhyah Kartavyoanuparodhatah II IV / 18 II
Charity be observed with those unable to cook for themselves, deprived provided for without disrupting own home.
Maharsi Manu has mandated through the Sutra that a householder must observe charity and philanthropy to the best of his faculties and capabilities without disrupting own household. Ascetics and renunciants who do not cook for themselves, must be provided for by the householder. Similarly, birds and animals too, must also be provided for from every meal. While observing these fundamental expectations, householder must cognise his means and capabilities before taking the call on limits that he must not transcend lest he disrupts his own household.
Klrptakesanakhasmasrurdantah Suklambarah Sucih I
Svadhyaye Caiva Yuktah Syannityamatmahitesu Ca II IV / 19 II
Must observe personal hygiene by tending hair, nail, beard, pursue self-restraint, wear clean clothes, remain pure, study Veda-s and profoundly indulge in self-development.
Maintaining body and mind pure and regular pursuit of Svadhyaya by studying Veda-s as well as undertaking all efforts to further spiritual advancement, are the cardinal obligations of a householder. These are never to be neglected, must be observed under all circumstances.
Tam Vivarjayatastasya Rajasa Samabhiplutam I
Prajna Tejo Balam Caksurayuscaiva Pravardhate II IV / 22 II
One abstaining cohabitation with woman undergoing menstruation has his intellect, aura, strength, eyesight and life-span enhanced.
Abstaining from pleasures of senses amounts to pursuing Tapa of the highest order and Tapa howsoever insignificant quantitatively, begets augmentation of all attributes that a person is endowed with. Overall health, intellectual abilities, aura of surrounding effulgence, life-span etc. stand raised higher with every pursuit of Tapa. Cohabitation with spouse undergoing menstruation must be eschewed not only as a measure of Tapa but also prevention of diseases causing ill-health.
Na Samvasecca Patitairna Candalairna Pulkasaih I
Na Murkhairnaviliptaisca Nantyairnantyavasayibhih II IV / 25 II
Noble householders being ordained, never to associate with simpletons, arrogant, egoistic and felonious ones of lower orders.
Householders herein are being regarded as important pillars of normal, healthy families and such families constitute a strong, vibrant society. If a householder wanders from his charted path of virtues and piety, not only the very foundation of his family is destroyed, entire society is threatened. Hence, it is absolutely imperative that the institution of family is preserved and guarded zealously through the strength and status it’s of householders. If a householder pursues his Dharma, institution of family remains sacrosanct and society, safe, sound and prosperous.
Natmanamavamanyet Purvabhirasamriddhibhih I
Amrtyoh Sriyamanvicchennainam Manyet Durlabham II IV / 32 II
Neither curse Self nor regret losing wealth but strive to regain till demise as not impossible to recover.
Entire human life-span is an aggregate of vicissitudes extending from penury to plutocracy. Householder must countenance all such turbulent phases of life with fortitude and wisdom, strive uninterruptedly to steer out of every crisis. During the phase of hardship, householder must not indulge in blaming himself as it causes forfeiture of morale and enthusiasm for the future. He must never lose sight of the reality that he is a householder and responsible for the well-being of his entire family. Lack of responsibility shall imperil life of all his family members. Householder must continuously struggle to regain the lost wealth and prosperity constantly being conscious of the reality that wealth is never impossible to regain as many times as one aspires.
Satyam Bruyatpriyam Bruyanna Bruyatsatyampriyam I
Priyam Ca Nanrtam Bruyadesa Dharmah Sanatanah II IV / 33 II
Speak truth yet not bitter truth as well as untruth to please others, according to Sanatana Dharma.
Basic intent of the Sutra appears to be to avoid unnecessary controversies and disputes while pursuing one’s mission in life. Unpleasant truth that may embitter anyone without delivering any positive consequence ought to be avoided so that one’s mental and physical faculties are dedicated to creative activities. One must also refrain from speaking untruth with the sole intent of pleasing someone to curry favours. It is so ordained in Sanatana Dharma. Even if it is a situation of waging a battle to uphold righteousness, avoidable bitterness, attrition and friction must be discarded forthwith. One must be entirely dedicated to the cause of objectives and sacrosanct values in one’s deportation.
Rupadravyavihinansca Jatihinansca Naksipet II IV / 35 II
Those with special, physical abilities and disabilities, unread, elders, deprived of beauty and wealth as well as belonging to lower orders, must not be derided or commented upon.
They are the lesser mortals of society who happen to be physically abnormal, uneducated, not endowed with physical charm, deprived of wealth or even coming from lower Varna-s of the social order. They ought to be approached with maximum consideration, dignity, grace and empathy. They must never be offended, lampooned in any manner or tormented with a hostile attitude and conduct. When one is undergoing proceeds of past such Karma-s enacted, we the able and fortunate ones, must extend all the support and empathy, to facilitate tide over the adversities of life.
Mangalacarayuktanam Nityam Ca Prayatatmanam I
Japatam Juhvatam Caiva Vinipato Na Vidyate II IV / 37 II
Those ever engaged in noble deeds, advancement of Atma, deport themselves with piety, pursue Japa and Yajna, never ever decline from grace.
All these philanthropic activities and noble Karma-s of Yajna, Japa etc. are meant to purify one’s inner being and render sacrosanct. Venality of Kama, Krodha, Lobha, Moha and Ahamkara are dissolved, mitigated and subdued leading to advancement of Atma on the cosmic, spiritual path. Philanthropic Karma-s involving Dana etc., if performed without affinity for their proceeds, further purify and sanctify one’s inner being. In due course, they arrive at such heights that decline from that poise is almost impossible.
Vedabhyasena Satatam Saucena Tapasaiva Ca I
Adrohena Ca Bhutanam Jatim Smarati Paurvikim II IV / 39 II
Through regular pursuit of Veda-s, Sauca of subtle and gross beings, Tapa and Ahimsa, one may be rendered conscious of past lives.
Veda-s constitute divine wisdom emanating straight from Param Brahmatma and inscribed by scores of Rsi-s and Maharsi-s over hundreds of years. Vedic Sloka-s and Sutra-s contain direct perception of Siddha Yogi-s who are attained to Him. Ostensibly, regular pursuit of Veda-s is capable of rendering one rise from the levels of mortality to divine excellence. Such a Mumuksu is then capable of beholding anyone of his past lives or past occurrences. Sauca marks purity and sanctity of the highest order and that too, is a divine attribute. Tapa constitutes all renunciatory, ascetic pursuits and that too, is an endeavour to attain sanctity of the highest order. By virtue of Tapa, one is bereft of all past Karma-s, Samskara-s and Prarabdha. Ahimsa is again a divine virtue of universalism, empathy and compassion. One rigorously pursuing the piety of Ahimsa, is rendered spiritualised and divinised. By virtue of pursuit of these virtues, one is rendered capable to perceive past lives and events.
Yadyatparavasam Karma Tattadyatnena Varjayet I
Yadyadatmavasam Tu Syattattatsevet Yatnatah II IV / 46 II
One must reject Karma under coercion and pursue Sva-Karma, both with conscious efforts.
Sva-Karma is one’s own Karma ordained in scriptures based on past Karma-s, incumbent Varna etc. It is mandatory and obligatory for everyone to pursue one’s own Karma i.e. Sva-Karma. Under no circumstance, one is allowed to pursue Sva-Karma of someone else. Any Karma under coercion or Para-Karma on one’s own volition are retrograde and inconsequential respectively. Having undertaken any one of them, one is compelled to revert to an embodiment dedicated to the sole objective of consummating Sva-Karma neglected earlier. Pursuit of one’s Sva-Karma alone incurs spiritual progress, self-contentment and esteem.
Acaryam Ca Pravaktaram Pitaram Mataram Gurum I
Na Hinsyada Brahmanangasca Sarvanscaiva Tapasvinah II IV / 49 II
Mandated not to torment Acarya, Pravakta, Pita, Mata, Guru, Brahmana, Gau and Tapasvi-s.
Acarya is the one who teaches Veda-s; Pravakta conducts discourses on Vedic wisdom; Pita is the one’s father; Mata is one’s mother; Guru is the preceptor who imparts education followed by enlightenment; Brahamana is the one who conducts all Vedic rituals; Gau is cow, highly venerated in scriptures while Tapasvi is the ascetic who pursues spiritual strives to attain the Ultimate, Supreme, Absolute Entity. Every member of society is mandated never to torment these or cause agony of any order whatsoever, to them. They are regarded as main columns of the social order and well-being, to be revered and protected by all.
Nastikyama Vedanindam Ca Devatanam Ca Kutsanam I
Dvesam Dambham Ca Manam Ca Krodham Taiksnyam Ca Varjayet II IV / 50 II
Atheism, derogation of Veda-s and Vedic scholars, envy, charlatanism, egoism, anger and excessive assertiveness ought to be eschewed.
Atheism is lack of faith and reverence in Adhyatma. As Adhyatma is the foundation of human life, absence of faith therein, would render one directionless. Veda-s and Vedic scholars must be respected and never ridiculed. Envy, jealousy, sham of being an erudite scholar, narrow confines of egoism and extreme conduct must be resolutely shunned. These ravage one’s entire personality, existence and cause disharmony with the Supreme, Absolute Entity.
Parasya Dandam Nodyacchetkruddho Naiva Nipatayet I
Anyatra Putracchisyadva Sistayartham Tadayetu Tau II IV / 51 II
Must not punish anyone other than son and disciple with cane except for educational purpose, invoke anger before hitting or scolding.
Personal discipline through self-control is sacrosanct, as ordained by Maharsi Manu. Cane must not be used for punishing anyone except for teaching son or disciple. Similarly, extreme deportation towards anyone is strictly prohibited especially under wrath. Such an extreme conduct has the potential of causing damage even in distant future and ought to be shunned.
Nadharmascarito Loke Sadyah Phalati Gauriva I
Sanairavartamanastu Karturmulani Krntati II IV / 54 II
Just as benefits of tending cows do not appear immediately, proceeds of evil Karma-s too are never instant. But, gradually these uproot well-being of the unrighteous ones, destroying them completely.
Tending, nourishing a cow do not enable her to deliver milk immediately as it compulsorily follows entire biological processes. Similarly, every act of Adharma is tagged with an exclusive gestation period to mature before delivering proceeds. More the intensity and severity of the evil deed committed, faster is it’s consummation through redemption. Whether gradually or rapidly, evil deed invariably cuts into roots of one’s well-being, culminating into a life of miseries and agonies. Only if Karmaphala i.e. proceeds of all evil deeds could be delivered immediately, Adharma may lose it’s very existence only to redefine entire cosmic order.
Adharmenaidhate Tavattato Bhadrani Pasyati I
Tatah Sapatnanjayati Samulastu Vinasyati II IV / 56 II
Evil ones violate confines of Dharma to expand, grow to be prosperous and victorious; then, uprooted and destroyed invariably.
Those endowed with evil propensities defy tenets of Dharma, are increasingly indulgent with immorality, charlatanism and readily deride Vedic wisdom. Such evil ones appear to be progressing for a while causing various kinds of apprehensions in all minds. Irrespective of such a progress, laws of Karma catch up with them and they begin losing nefariously acquired wealth gradually. Their ultimate fate lies in utter miseries and destruction. It is impossible to defy one’s own destiny based on Karma-s undertaken.
Yenasya Pitaro Yata Yena Yatah Pitamahah I
Tena Yayatsatam Margam Tena Gacchanna Risyate II IV / 60 II
Must trace the path traversed by one’s ancestors yet not the evil ones. Only the pious among ancestors be followed.
Attainments of elders and ancestors are profoundly facilitative in one’s advancement if invoked and practised wisely. In absence of these, one is hamstrung by multiple obstacles and constrained to begin with the begining. However, Maharsi Manu has conditioned his wisdom with the desirability of pursuing only those ancestors who had been pious in their conduct and noble in deeds. If one follows evil deeds of ancestors or derives any benefit whatsoever for self-advancement, retribution of the same would be inescapable. Ostensibly, by following evil deeds of one’s ancestors, one is certain to be destroyed ultimately.
Na Dravyanamavijnaya Vidhim Dharmyam Pratigrahe I
Prajnam Pratigraham Kuryadavasidannapi Ksudha II IV / 64 II
Wise one ought not accept Dana without following underlying tenets of Dharma involved, even if in a dire state hunger.
The wise and enlightened ones i.e. Brahmana-s are ordained to pursue all mandates of Dharma while expecting as well as accepting Dana i.e. donation. Brahmana is not expected to violate any principle of Dharma while accepting donations irrespective of severity of circumstances and intensity of hunger. As Dharma is sacrosanct, Maharsi Manu has mandated, Dharma must not be violated in every possible and conceivable situation.
Yamansevet Satatam Na Nityam Niyamanbudhah I
Yamanpatatyakurvano Niyamankevalanbhajan II IV / 73 II
Yama must be pursued uninterruptedly as pursuit of Niyama alone without pursuit of Yama leads to decline.
Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dharana, Dhyana and Samadhi are eight pursuits of Astangayoga enunciated by Maharsi Patanjali for the seekers to attain ultimate level of consciousness and liberation. Regular pursuit of Astangayoga facilitates attainment of these objectives in quickest possible time subject to one’s accumulation of Karma-s, Samskara-s and Prarabdha. Out of these eight pursuits, Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, Pratyahara are external while Dharana, Dhyana and Samadhi are internal. Aforesaid Sutra is dedicated to first two pursuits of the Yoga, i.e. Yama and Niyama.
Ahimsa i.e. abjuration of violence at all levels of Cetana and Karma, Satya i.e. being steadfast in righteousness, Asteya i.e. abjuration of extortion and purloining, Brahmacarya i.e. pursuit of continence through asceticism and Aparigraha i.e. abjuration of acquisition for accumulation are the elements that constitute Yama. Thus, Tapa of Yama is a five-fold pursuit. Similarly, Tapa of Niyama too, is a five-fold pursuit. Sauca i.e. purity of all sorts, Santosa i.e. contentment with whatever one possesses, Tapa i.e. ascetic way of living with minimum requirements, Svadhyaya i.e. study of scriptures, Isvarapranidhana i.e. unqualified and incessant devotion unto the Absolute Entity of Param Brahma, are the virtues that constitute Niyama. It is abundantly expounded through the definitions of all elements of Yama and Niyama that both, Yama and Niyama ought to be pursued at five-fold levels each, so as to be able to consecrate one’s inner being. Pursuit of mere Niyama without associated pursuit of Yama leads one to decline as Yama is more fundamental and foundational than Niyama. Pursuit of Niyama does not survive absence of resolute practice of Yama.
Sarvesameva Dananam Brahmadanam Visisyate I
Varyannagomahivasastilakancanasarpisam II IV / 75 II
Dana of Vedic wisdom is the highest of all i.e. Jala, Anna, Gau, Prthvi, Vastra, Tila, Suvarna, Ghrta etc.
Jala, Anna, Gau, Prthvi, Vastra, Tila, Suvarna, Ghrta are water, grain, cow, land, oil-seed, gold, refined milk-fat respectively. All these and few more similar objects enjoy religious import, offered into sacred fire of Yajna as oblations as well as offered in Dana to the eligible ones on various occasions. Out of all these, Dana of Vedic wisdom is regarded as Dana of the highest order.
Vedic wisdom is imperishable and survives with the receiver till his demise. Also, Vedic wisdom brings about spiritual transformation of the highest order as well as all other related upgradations and modifications that are precious. Other objects of Dana are too short-lived to cause any lasting impact on the receiver. Hence, Dana of Vedic wisdom is superior to all others.
Dharmam Sanaih Sacinuyadvalmikamiva Puttikah I
Paralokasahayartham Sarvabhutanyapidayan II IV / 76 II
The way termites raise termitary, one may gradually accumulate Prarabdha through pious pursuits without tormenting anyone.
Prarabdha is the outstanding Karma enacted earlier poised to be redeemed through the cosmic process of consummation. Pursuit of piety engenders Prarabdha that invites fame, glory and wealth in the same or subsequent life.
Termites are the insects who raise their colony known as termitary slowly and quite gently. They do so in such a manner that other members of ambiance are entirely unaffected in spite of their being engaged uninterruptedly.
Maharsi Manu mandates that one ought to enact Karma-s of piety in such a way that anyone who matters, is not adversely affected. Even pursuit of Dharma must not harm or agonise anyone while one brightens future and subsequent lives through Prarabdha. That is the highest order of pursuit of Dharma.
Namutra Hi Sahayartham Pita Mata Ca Tisthatah I
Na Putradara Na Jnatirdharmastisthati Kevalah II IV / 77 II
Neither father, mother, son, spouse nor kin are of any support in the other world. Dharma alone is the saviour.
All these family members and kin are of no assistance in the subtle world after dis-embodiment. Prarabdha and Dharma alone escort one’s subtle body on that plane of existence that decide future course of movements.
Indeed, all kin of life just over too, are in the same predicament of trial by Prarabdha and Dharma. Certainly, from that state of existence, they are incapable of providing any support to anyone.
Uttamairuttamairnityam Sambandhanacaretsah I
Ninisuh Kulamutkarsamadhasanadhamanstyajet II IV / 82 II
If aspiring to raise one’s own family and clan, must shun evil and felonious ones while associating with noble ones.
Through this Sutra, Maharsi Manu has underscored essentiality and sanctity of Satsanga i.e. dwelling in company of pious and noble ones. Company of pious and virtuous ones inspires one to undertake noble causes, pursue Dharma, study scriptures and propagate wisdom. All these noble Karma-s raise one higher in the spiritual order of accomplishments. Satsanga also causes augmentation of one’s Sattva Guna and advancement towards one’s Self i.e. Atma. Once Atma is realised, highest attainment of Param Brahmatma is an attainable goal. On the contrary, association with evil ones invites only miseries and decline.
Vacyartha Niyatah Sarve Vangmula Vagvinihsrtah I
Tanstu Yah Stenayedvacam Sa Sarvasteyakrnnarah II IV / 86 II
As Vani being foundational, encompasses entire prospects and attributes, ought to be truthful lest amounts to Steya.
Vani is the faculty of speech while Steya is an evil Karma of purloining. Vani is the foundation of one’s entire interactions with the external world. It also holds within itself and conveys all one’s attributes and prospects. With the faculty of Vani being so effective and influential, one must be abundantly discreet and truthful while uttering every single word. If Vani, being divine gift, is invoked for falsehood, it amounts to purloining which is an evil Karma. With Vani, one must always be consciously truthful and conscientious in disposition.
Maharsipitradevanam Gatvanranya Yathavidhi I
Putre Sarvam Samasajya Vasenmadhyasthamasritah II IV / 87 II
Accordingly after reciprocating benedictions of Maharsi, father, Deva-s and relinquishing all responsibilities to son, one must be rendered indifferent while continuing in the household.
Benedictions and blessings of Maharsi as preceptor may be reciprocated by pursuing Brahmacarya, by studying and propagating Vedic wisdom; parental gratitude may be reciprocated by serving them with devotion while boons and blessings of celestial deities may be reciprocated by enacting Yajna-s and offering of oblations into the sacred fire. Once all these obligatory Karma-s are successfully accomplished, house-holder must turn utterly indifferent towards all domestic responsibilities while continuing to stay with the family for the remaining phase of life.
It is a profoundly sane preception of Maharsi Manu as Moha and Ahamkara howsoever insignificant in this phase of one’s mortal existence, is certain to cause unmitigated miseries, agonies, conflicts and fragmentation in family.
Ekaki Cintayennityam Vivikte Hitamatsanah I
Ekaki Cintayano Hi Param Sreyoadhigacchati II IV / 88 II
One ought to contemplate in solitude upon oneself within oneself for augmentation of self-attainment as that alone assures it profoundly.
One desirous of enlightenment must pursue solitude i.e. remaining in one’s own company as much as possible. Indeed, one is the best company for oneself. One’s Self communicates only in the state of silence and solitude. Cosmic journey inward is the most enlightening and mysterious in nature and content. Constant pursuit of solitude and self-contemplation leads one to spiritual attainments of a very high order.
One must not fritter away one’s precious time and inner strength in frivolous activities and worthless company of others. These are in reality, self-consuming for frivolity instead of self-enrichment.
All these injunctions and mandates are entirely Varna-neutral.